The federal census shows Fayetteville population to be 972 people, a 63 percent increase over the previous decade’s census. Washington County’s total population was 14,673.
The Fayetteville Democrat is started by W.W. Moore. Its equipment was destroyed by Confederates early in the Civil War, and it ceased publication after less than a year of publication.
First telegraph line is strung by the Stebbins Telegraph Co. from Jefferson City along the old military road, through Fayetteville and into Fort Smith.
Stephen Bedford, a local merchant, is elected the second mayor in the city's new mayor-council form of government.
March 4 — A convention to consider secession is convened in Little Rock. David Walker and Elias C. Boudinot, both of Fayetteville, are elected president and secretary, respectively.
General Benjamin McCulloch ordered Confederate forces under his command to burn all the commercial buildings, military stores and vacant houses in Fayetteville on February 25. After setting torches to the city, the Confederate troops retreated beyond the Boston Mountains but returned within a week headed north to do battle at Pea Ridge.
On December 6, General Herron and his Union forces marched through Fayetteville on their way to support General Blunt at the battle of Prairie Grove on December 7. The Confederate forces under the command of General Hindman fought through the day and then withdrew during the night. Most of the wounded were moved to Fayetteville where hospitals had been established.
January 8 — Lt. Col. A.W. Bishop is made provost marshal of Fayetteville, and Col. M. Larue Harrison is post commander when Union troops again occupy Fayetteville.
January 27 — The Boston Morning Journal of Boston, Massachusetts, reported that “an enthusiastic Union demonstration occurred” in Fayetteville on this date. Speeches were made by a Dr. Johnson, described as a prominent Union refugee, and Col. Bishop of the 1st Arkansas Cavalry, among others. According to the story, fifteen homeguard companies were organized, and hundreds of citizens signed a petition to Congress requesting an election for a member of Congress from Arkansas.
February — The guerrilla leader William Heffington brings more than 100 followers from Mount Magazine to Fayetteville to become part of the Union Army.
March 27 — The Springfield Daily Republican of Massachusetts reports from Fayetteville that Confederate Gen. William Lewis Cabell "is collecting scattered rebel forces north of the Arkansas river, evidently with the design of operating against our troops in that section."
April 18 — Confederate forces attack Union troops headquartered in Fayetteville early in the morning with cannon fire from East Mountain and cavalry charges from the hollow surrounding Big Spring, but they are repulsed by the Union infantry and cavalry. Most of the battle rages near the intersection of Dickson Street and College Avenue.
Oct. 3 — Major Gen. James Fleming Fagan of the Confederacy attacks Fayetteville from the west after a nearly month-long siege of the downtown, but his effort fails to drive the federal troops out.
E.E. Henderson arrives from Indiana and organizes Fayetteville as District No. 1, the first public school district in the state. The American Missionary Society builds a brick building to school the city’s African American students, the first public school in Fayetteville and perhaps the state.
National Cemetery is established on the south side of Fayetteville. It was one of the original fourteen authorized by President Lincoln.
The Cumberland Presbyterian Church is established on Block Avenue near the intersection with Dickson Street.
St. James Methodist Episcopal Church is established at the corner of Willow Avenue and Center Street this year.
April — James Van Hoose and Dr. Thomas Pollard are commissioned to oversee the building of a new courthouse, the fourth, in the center of the square.
July — The Fayetteville Weekly Democrat begins publishing with E.B. and W.B. Moore as editors. The Moores were sons of W.W. Moore, who had published the similarly named Fayetteville Democrat for about a year before the outbreak of the Civil War. The Weekly was later renamed the Fayetteville Daily Democrat and eventually the Northwest Arkansas Times.
August 15 — The first known baseball game played in Fayetteville occurred on this day. The Primitive Base Ball Club, made up of soldiers stationed at Fayetteville, and the Urban Club, presumably townspeople who formed a team, played each other. The game occurred on the same day as the Slow Mule Race.